General Chinese Language References

Buddhist specific references are at Buddhism References.

  1. Asato, Noriko (ed). 2013. Handbook for Asian Studies Specialists: A Guide to Research Materials and Collection Building Tools, Libraries Unlimited, Santa Barbara, California,
  2. Barnes, A., 2007. Chinese through Poetry: an Introduction to the Language and Imagery of Traditional Verse. Alcuin Academics, York.
  3. “Baidu Baike.” Baidu. Accessed January 10, 2015.
  4. Bussmann, Hadumod, ed. 2007, Yunanxue Cidian 《语言学词典》, Beijing: Commercial Press.
  5. CEDICT project. “CC-CEDICT.” Accessed March 2, 2014. and MDBG Chinese-English dictionary, online dictionary website based on CC-CEDICT.
  6. Chan, Hok-lam 2014, “Chinese Official History at the Yuan Court: The Compilation of the Liao, Chin, and Sung Histories,” in China Under Mongol Rule, edited by John D Langlois, e-book, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 56–106.
  7. Chan Shanwei. 1993. A glossary of translation terms: English-Chinese Chinese-English 《英漢漢英翻譯學詞匯》. 香港: Chinese University Press.
  8. Chan, Sin-wai. 2004. A Dictionary of Translation Technology. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.
  9. Chen Fu Hua 陈复华, ed. Gudai Hanyu Cidian 《古代汉语词典》. Beijing: China Commercial Press 商务印书馆, 2005.
  10. Chen Jiarong, Xie Fang, Lu Junling, 1986. Gudai Nanhai Diming Hui Shi 《古代南海地名汇释》. Zhonghua Book Company, Beijing.
  11. China Communications Press, 2016. World Atlas 世界地图册, China Communications Press, Beijing.
  12. “China Vitae.” 2016. Accessed May 19.
  13. Cross-Cultural Healthcare Program. 2011. Chinese medical glossary. Seattle, WA: Cross Cultural Health Care Program.
  14. “Chinese Text Project.” Accessed March 2, 2014. Specific entries are listed in the corpus.
  15. Crystal, D., 2008. Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 6th edition (Kindle), Wiley-Blackwell, Malden, MA ; Oxford.
  16. DeFrancis, J. (Ed.), 2003. ABC Chinese-English comprehensive dictionary: alphabetically based computerized, ABC Chinese dictionary series. University of Hawai’i Press, Honolulu.
  17. Denecke, Wiebke, Wai-Yee Li and Xiaofei Tian 2017, The Oxford Handbook of Classical Chinese Literature (1000 BCE-900CE), New York: Oxford University Press.
  18. Dictionary Department, Institute of Languages, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (Ed.), 2002. The contemporary chinese dictionary, Chinese-English edition, Foreign Languages Teaching and Research Press, Beijing.
  19. Dillon, Michael. 1998. China: A Historical and Cultural Dictionary. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon.
  20. Downing, D, Covington, MA & Covington, MM 2015, Barron’s Dictionary of Computer and Internet Terms, English-Chinese translation, Qinghua University Press, Beijing.
  21. Fuller, M.A., 2004. An introduction to literary Chinese, Rev. ed, Harvard East Asian monographs. Harvard University Asia Center: Distributed by Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.
  22. Getty Research Institute. 2016. “Art & Architecture Thesaurus.” Accessed August 16.
  23. Getty Research Institute. 2016. “Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names.” Accessed August 25.
  24. Giles, Herbert Allen. 1898. A Chinese Biographical Dictionary 《古今姓氏族譜》. London; Shanghai: B. Quaritch ; Kelly & Walsh.
  25. Giles, H.A., 1892. A Chinese-English Dictionary, London: B. Quaritch.
  26. Gong Guangli (Ed.) 2011, An English-Chinese Chinese-English Glossary of Library Science, Intelligence and Bibliography, Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, Shanghai.
  27. Gu, Renao. 2003. A Comprehensive English-Chinese Dictionary of Science and Technology. Bejing: Commercial Press.
  28. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, and Henan Ci Yuan Revision Committee, 1983, Revised ed, Ci Yuan 《辭源》, Commercial Press, Beijing.
  29. Guo Puzhi and Xing Bingshu (Eds). Er Ya 《爾雅》, 1739, Chinese Text Project,, reprint, from 爾雅注疏 《武英殿十三經注疏》本 published by 廣東書局. Accessed 2015-09-21.
  30. Guoyu Cidian 國語辭典, Accessed 2017-02-11.
  31. Ho, Y., 2002. Chinese-English Frequency Dictionary: A Study Guide to Mandarin Chinese’s 500 Most Frequently Used Words. Hippocrene Books.
  32. Hui Yu, (ed.), 2004. A New Century Chinese-English Dictionary 新世纪汉英大词典, Beijing: Foreign Languages Teaching and Research Press.
  33. Idema, W.L., Haft, L., 1997. A guide to Chinese literature. Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
  34. Jiao, Liwei, Cornelius C. Kubler ∓ Weiguo Zhang 2013, 500 Common Chinese Idioms: An Annotated Frequency Dictionary, Kindle, Routledge, Oxon, UK.
  35. Karlgren, Bernhard 1974, Analytic dictionary of Chinese and Sino-Japanese, New York: Dover Publications.
  36. Kern, Martin 2017. Origins of Chinese Political Philosophy: Studies in the Composition and Thought of the Shangshu. Leiden; Boston: Brill.
  37. Kroll, PW 2015, A student’s dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese, Brill, Leiden, Boston.
  38. Legge, J 1861, The Analects 《論語》, also known as “The Analects of Confucius,” Chinese Text Project,, accessed June 1, 2014. Source: Legge, J 1861, "The Chinese Classics, volume 1."
  39. Legge, J., 1885. The Classic of Rites 《禮記》, in Sacred Books of the East, volume 28, part 4: The Li Ki,, accessed 2015-11-19..
  40. Legge, J., 1891. The Writings of Chuang Tzu 《莊子》. Chinese Text Project,, accessed 2015-10-24.
  41. Legge, J., 1899. Book of Changes 《周易》. Sacred Books of the East, volume 16,, accessed 2015-09-23.
  42. Legge, J 1898, The Book of Odes 《詩經 》, Chinese Text Project, accessed 2 June 2015, Source: "The Chinese Classics, volume 4", James Legge, 1898.
  43. Legge, J 1861, The Analects of Confucius,《論語》, ” Chinese Text Project,, accessed June 1, 2014. Source: Legge, J 1861, "The Chinese Classics, volume 1."
  44. Lao She, 2003. Luotuo Xiangzi 《骆驼祥子》, Illustrated ed., The People’s Literature Publishing House 人民文学出版社, Beijing.
  45. Lao She, 2010. Tea House 《茶馆》. Hainan Press, Haikou, Hainan.
  46. Li Shaoqi, 2003. A Guide to Function Words in Modern Chinese. Beijing University Press, Beijing.
  47. Lin, Delia 2017 Civilising Citizens in Post-Mao China: Understanding the Rhetoric of Suzhi. Taylor & Francis.
  48. Liu Lianli (Ed.), 1999. HSK Chinese profiency test vocabulary guidline: A dictionary of Chinese usage: 8000 words. Beijing Language and Culture University Press, Beijing.
  49. “Map of the People’s Republic of China 《中华人民共和国地图》.” 2002. Chinese-English Edition, Sino Maps Press.
  50. Medhurst, W.H., 1842. Chinese and English dictionary: containing all the words in the Chinese imperial dictionary, arranged according to the radicals. Batavia. Volumes 1 and 2.
  51. Mengzi & Legge, J. (tr.) 340-250 BCE. 《孟子》also known as "The Works of Mencius". Chinese Text Project, Source: "The Works of Mencius", James Legge, Clarendon, 1885.
  52. Mittal, Sushil, and Thursby, Gene. Religions of South Asia: An Introduction. London and New York: Routledge, 2006.
  53. Ministry of Education, 2015Guoyu Cidian 國語辭典, viewed 15 March 2017,
  54. Norman, J., 1988. Chinese, Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [Cambridgeshire] ; New York.
  55. Ouyang, Xiu and Richard L Davis 2004, Historical Records of the Five Dynasties, E-Book, New York: Columbia University Press.
  56. Owen, Steven 2017, 'Chapter 1: Key Concepts of “Literature”,' in Denecke, Wiebke, Wai-Yee Li, and Xiaofei Tian (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Classical Chinese Literature (1000 BCE-900CE), New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 3-12.
  57. Pan Weigui 潘维桂 2000, A Chinese-English Dictionary of Chinese Idioms 汉英汉语成语用法词典, Beijing: Sinolingua.
  58. Pulleyblank, Edwin G. Outline of Classical Chinese Grammar. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1995.
  59. Rohsenow, J.S., 2003. ABC Dictionary of Chinese Proverbs (Yanyu). University of Hawaii Press.
  60. Schuessler, A., 2007. ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese. University of Hawaii Press.
  61. Schmidt, Muhammad Wolfgang G A 2018, Mister Ma’s Grammar Guide to Literary Chinese: The Original Chinese Text of the Mashi Wentong with Chinese-English Character and Word Glossaries, E-Book, Hamburg: disserta Verlag.
  62. Shandong Sheng Diqu Chubanshe, 2016. Zhongguo Zhengqu Dituce 《中国政区地图册》, Shandong Sheng Diqu Chubanshe, Dazi Ban, Jinan.
  63. Shangwu Yinshu Guancishu Yanjiu Zhongxin (Ed.) 2015, Chinese-English Dictionary of Classified Terms, Commercial Press, Beijing.
  64. Shei, Chris 2014 Understanding the Chinese Language: A Comprehensive Linguistic Introduction, Oxon UK: 1st edition; Routledge.
  65. Shi Ming 《釋名》, 1959. . Nationalist Publishing 國民出版社, Taipei,
  66. Sima Qian & Allen, H.J. (trans.) 109 BCE, Shiji《史記》also known as “Records of the Grand Historian,” Chinese Text Project, Partial translation adapted from Herbert J. Allen's "Ssŭma Ch'ien's Historical Records" (Royal Asiatic Society, 1894).
  67. Sullivan, Lawrence R, and Nancy R Hearst. 1997. Historical Dictionary of the People’s Republic of China, 1949-1997. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.
  68. Sun, Chaofen 2006. Chinese: A Linguistic Introduction, Kindle ed., Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press.
  69. Swanson, Paul. Foundations of T'ien-tai Philosophy: The Flowering of the Two Truths Theory in Chinese Buddhism, Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture, United States. 1989.
  70. Unicode Consortium, 2015. Unicode Han Database, Lookup is at
  71. VIAF Contributors. 2016. “Virtual International Authority File.” Accessed October 30, 2016.
  72. Wang Cuihua, ed. 2013. Wu Nan Guo Yu Cidian《五南國語辭典》. Taipei: Wu Nan Publishing Company.
  73. Wang, D., Yang, Q., 2005. A Chinese-English glossary of cultural relics and archaeology 《汉英文物考古词汇》. Forbidden City Presee, Beijing.
  74. Wang, L., Jiang, S. (Eds.), 2005. Gu Hanyu Chang Yong Zi Zidian 《古汉语常用字字典》, Di 4 ban. ed. Shang wu yin shu guan, Beijing.
  75. Wangjian Yin 王剑引, Liangjian Min, 2007. Gudai Hanyu Da Cidian 《古代汉语大词典》, Ci Hai. edition Shanghai Commercial Press, Shanghai.
  76. Weng Ruiqi (Ed.). 2002. An English-Chinese dictionary of science and technologyi> 《英汉科技辞典》. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.
  77. Wei Dongya (ed). 1997, Chinese-English dictionary 《汉英词典》, Revised ed., Foreign Languages Teaching and Research Press, Beijing.
  78. Wikipedia, 2016, Wikimedia Foundation. Accessed October 30, 2016.
  79. Wiktionary, 2015, Accessed January 10, 2015.
  80. Wilkinson, EP 2015, Chinese History: a New Manual, Harvard University Asia Center, Cambridge and London.
  81. WorldCat, 2016, OCLC,, accessed 2014-01-14.
  82. Wu, Kathy and Sai Tee 2015, Thousand-Character Classic, Singapore: China Publishing House.
  83. Wu, Jingcai. 1985. A Chinese-English Dictionary. Beijing: Commercial Press.
  84. Wu Zhengyi, Peter Raven, and Hong Deyuan, (eds.) 2013. Flora of China. Beijing: Science Press.
  85. Xie, Baocheng 2013, Brief History of the Official System in China, London: Paths International Ltd.
  86. Xinhua Net, 2016,, accessed 2016-01-25.
  87. Xinhua Zidian 《新华字典》 2010, 11th ed. Beijing: Commercial Press.
  88. Xinhua zidian 《新华字典》, 2013. Chinese-English ed., Beijing: Commercial Press.
  89. Xu Shen. “Shuo Wen Jie Zi 說文解字,” 121 CE. Chinese Text Project. Accessed 2015/01/10.
  90. Xu Zongcai, Ying Junling (Eds.) 2011, Suyu Cidian 《俗语词典》 Commercial Press, Beijing.
  91. Yang Ziyou. 2012. An English-Chinese Dictionary of Information and Electronic Technology 《英汉信息与电子科技词典》. Beijing: China Electric Power Press.
  92. Yao, X., 2000. An Introduction to Confucianism. Cambridge University Press.
  93. Ye Shengtao, 1999. A Scarecrow 《稻草人》. Hope Publishing House, Shaanxi, China.
  94. Yong, H., Peng, J., 2008. Chinese Lexicography: A History from 1046 BC to AD 1911. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  95. “” 汉典, 2014, Accessed March 2, 2014.
  96. Zhang Fangjie, Zhu Liangzhen, Deng Leran, 1996. Far East Chinese-English dictionary 《遠東漢英大辭典》. The Far East Book Co., Taiwan.
  97. Zhang, Y., Chen, T., 1710. Kangxi Dictionary 《康熙字典》, Chinese Text Project,
  98. Zhu Xi, 1983. Commentaries on the Four Books 《四書章句集注》, Zhonghua Book Company, Beijing,
  99. Zui Xin Shi, Yong Ying Han, 1998. English-Chinese pinyin dictionary. New World Press, Beijing, China.